Florida wax scales: Control measures in Texas for hollies. Fla. Dept. Nymphs will often line up on the veins of the upper surface of the leaf (Fig. The scale is polyphagous, feeding on a wide variety of plants in 1 throughout the eastern half of Texas and the southeastern U. S. are becoming infested with the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae) (Fig 1). They adhere to and feed off of host plants. Regulatory Hort. throughout its range. When a new flush of growth occurs on the host plant, the more mature scales will often migrate to the new growth at the top of the plant. Use the proper amount of irrigation and fertilization based on the needs of the particular plant species or variety (Drees et al. 9. When removing individual adult female scales from leaves at certain times of the year, hundreds of eggs will pour out of their body cavities (Fig. Although extensively distributed world-wide, the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus), was first discovered in Florida at several nursery and stock dealers in 1994 and 1995. 2). Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. Wax scale females feed and develop through three immature stages (first, second and third instars) before becoming adults, producing eggs and dying. Insecticidal soap, made from potassium salt of fatty acids, works by penetrating and destroying the outer shell or membrane of the insect causing it to dehydrate and die. (5 December 2014). Some species of “bark lice” (Psocidae) are associated with sooty mold. Each generation lasts about three to four months. Hodges GS, Ruter JR, Braman SK. The goal of insecticide-based efforts should be to prevent new regrowth from becoming infested by crawlers. False oleander scale female, turned over to show eggs and female body. Photograph by Lyle J. Buss, University of Florida. It also makes them vulner- able to heavy rain and other environmental factors that reduce their ability to survive. Types of scale on citrus plants in the armored scale family may include Black Parlatoria, Citrus Snow Scale, Florida Red Scale and Purple Scale. 51. Stimmel, J. F. 1998. Some common Florida scales. 2. Cir. Hamon AB, Williams ML. 2006a). 1984. Consider junipers, ligustrum, privet, wax myrtle, or boxwood as alternative plants. Of course, these other landscape ornamental plants may have other limitations. Honeydew also attracts other insects including bees, wasps, hornets and ants (Hymenoptera). 1993. 2006). In Florida, it also infests a variety of other plants, including: The direct damage is caused by nymphs inserting their mouthparts into the plant tissue and withdrawing large amounts of plant fluids. Ceroplastes vinsonii Signoret, 1872 (Ben-Dov 2012), Cerostegia floridensis (Comstock), Gimpel et al. Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. However, if the shell is completely removed from the leaf surface, as illustrated in this slide, or a dried mass is found beneath the cover, the scale is probably dead. Florida wax scales can also overwinter as newly mature females (Drees et al. 1974. You're the proud owner of the camellia's most common pest – the tea scale. Each female has a reddish body that is coated with a thick layer of pinkish-white wax. Control is difficult on heavily infested plants, in part, because proper timing and thorough coverage using insecticide treatments are needed to achieve success. They are soft scales that commonly infest citrus, hemlock, azalea, blueberry, camellia, Chinese elm 536 pp. (June 2006). It may occur in the northern U.S., but it has not achieved pest status there because it cannot survive the winter (Hodges et al. Both use long, needle-like mouthparts to suck out sap from the host tree or plant.Characteristics of Soft Scales 1. Large amounts of a sticky, sugary liquid, called honeydew, is secreted by these scale insects and is colonized by a fungus called sooty mold, and causes infested plant parts to turn black and become unsightly. They feed on the sap of plants, and a large enough population can Drees, B. M. and J. Seven recently registered products (Altus, Mainspring, Pradia, Rycar, Sarisa, Ventigra and XXpire) looked promising on several species based on their efficacy relative to standards. Numerous species of scale insects, typically classified as soft or armored, can attack a broad array of shrubs. Other insects are also attracted to and feed on the honeydew, including various bees, paper wasps, hornets, velvet ants, imported fire ants and other ant species. Cottony cushion scale crawlers on sooty When purchasing any plant material for installation into a landscape, be certain that each plant is pest-free. Coccidae, ‘Pink Wax Scale’. Ben-Dov, Y. Active wax scale crawlers (two on right) and settled crawler (left). 24(2):17-19. L-5479. The first generation occurs in April and May, the second is in July and August, and the third one occurs in October and November. Worldwide: Africa, Asia, Australia, Central America, the Caribbean, Mediterranean region, Pacific Islands, and South America. This scale is considered a major pest of citrus (Citrus spp.) Control of Florida wax scale was excellent with Flagship, Safari and TriStar, and good with Talus Native to Africa. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station. They are: Coccophagus lycimnia (Walker) (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus eruptor Howard (Encyrtidae), and Scutellista cynea Motschulsky (Pteromalidae) (Drees et al. Florida wax scales along leaf veins. Learn how to get rid of scale for good in this in-depth guide. Indian Wax Scale on the stem of cherry laurel. Fig 2. Adults and early instars of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. Ben-Dov, Y. Three parasitic wasp species (Coccophagus lycimnia, Scutellista cynea and Metaphycus eruptor) have been reported for Florida wax scales in some parts of the U. S. (Hamon & Williams 1984). However, no natural enemies (pathogens, parasites, predators) have been observed to provide biological control of Florida wax scales in Texas. Use carbaryl (Sevin) three times, at two-week intervals, starting in mid-April to control the baby scale as they emerge from under the adults. Fig. Eggs from beneath an adult female wax scale. Euonymus scale, on the other hand, attacks euonymus and resembles tea scale. 1987). On holly, Florida wax scales are easily spotted because most of them colonize the upper leaf surface. Hard to detect and unimpressive-looking, scale insects are an underestimated danger to your landscape plants. We are also grateful to Gary Plaia of Katy, Texas for monitoring scale crawler hatches and reporting success in treating infested hollies in southeast Texas. Visually inspect plants regularly for early signs of infestation. Johnson WT, Lyon HH. If hollies are selected for planting, inspect plants thoroughly to avoid purchasing already-infested plants. Systemic insecticides generally do not eliminate all scales located on branches or twigs, so the addition of foliar treatments may be necessary to eliminate the whole population. Some scales may remain on the plant, dead, after being treated with an insecticide. Promote plant vigor and health by properly selecting preparing planting sites, and providing optimal watering and fertilization. Alternative shrubs to hollies in eastern Texas include junipers (except “Blue Point”), Ligustrum, privet, boxwood, pittosporium, bottle brush, sea grapes, oleander, wax myrtle (regular and dwarf). Scale insects can infest and damage many of the plants we grow in our landscapes and indoors. Hiding under the "scale" covering (sometimes hard; sometimes fuzzy), these insects sit in one spot and suck plant juices—weakening or even killing the plant. Adult Florida wax scales, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock. Cottony cushion scale is frequently found on pittosporum, citrus and nandina, whereas Florida wax scale is common on crape myrtle, gardenia, … Wax scales injure plants by removing large quantities of plant sap. Pink Wax Scale (Ceroplastes rubens) Size: 3-4 mm Nymph: pale pink Adult: when squashed, body underneath is pink-red, lobes either side of body Rare. There are three instars (Drees et al. 1984. On magnolia trees, false After settling, nymphs insert their thread-like mouthparts into the plant and begin to secrete wax in tufts around the body that give them a star-like appearance. Drees BM, Reinert JA,Williams ML. Florida wax scale is thought to have originated from the northern Neotropical region and now occurs throughout the world, including, but not restricted to, the following countries: Africa: Algeria, Egypt, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Asia: Bonin Islands, Brunei, China, Cyprus, India, Iran, Israel, Japan (including the Ryukyu Islands), Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Taiwan, Turkey, and the more southern member countries of the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Australasia and Pacific Islands: Australia, Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands, New Zealand, Central America and Caribbean: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, West Indies, Europe: France (including Corsica), Greece, Italy (including Sicily), Malta, Spain, South America: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Venezuela. Males are not known in this species (Futch et al. Mass rearing of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis,for production of natural enemies. Gulf Publ. 4. When infested plants are to be preserved, control should begin with pruning away and discarding heavily infested foliage. Sandhill Crane Press. Soft scale – Soft scale bugs on citrus also form a protective coating via wax secretion, but it is not the hardened shell that the armored scale produces. Males are unknown in this species. Nymphs: The first instars are pink in color and have functional legs. 2000). Entomol. Phytoparasitica 15: 277-287. Minimizing pest-prone plant species or varieties in a landscape is important when trying to reduce pesticide use. Neem oil products work by suffocating the insect. The authors are grateful for reviews of earlier versions of this manuscript by Carlos Bogran and Scott Ludwig. Merit®, Bayer® Tree & Shrub Insect Control) should be applied prior to egg hatch to allow the active ingredient to be translocated from the soil, through the roots and into the leaf tissue. The adult female of the Florida wax scale grows to about 3 mm (1/8-inch). Florida wax scale infestations could also trigger additional treatments, especially the use of systemic insecticides and foliar sprays (1). Florida Wax Scale - Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock The adult female is covered with a thick layer of soft wax, about 2 to 4 mm in length and 1 to 3.5 mm in width. The Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, is one of the most commonly encountered soft scales throughout the southern United States, where it is a serious pest of citrus and several ornamental plants, like holly. Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. 5% or more of green twigs infested with 1 or more scales. Sooty mold on holly leaves. They overwinter predominantly as newly mature females. Male forms have not been observed in this species. Adults: Adult female Florida wax scales are elliptical, reddish brown with a short anal process (Hamon and Williams 1984), and range from 2 to 4 mm in length and 1 to 3.5 mm in width. Web Site Maintenance: Neal Lee, Soil, Water, and Forage Testing Laboratory, Texas Plant Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Florida Wax Scales: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees, Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies, Florida Wax Scales – Biology and Management, “Near-organic” and “Inorganic” Insecticides, Equal Opportunity for Educational Programs Statement. 117 pp. Heavy infestations of the scale cause yellowing, loss of foliage, and poor fruit set 2. 2006a). 2) are oval and reddish-orange in color, and fill the cavity underneath the bodies of dead or mature adult female scales. Underneath the wax cap, the body of the scale is red. This location makes the scales vulnerable to heavy rain and other environmental factors that reduce their ability to survive and are more easily reached with foliar insecticide sprays. Cultural control. Figure 3. 2009). Sanitation and pruning will reduce initial pest density and opens the canopy for improving spray coverage. Established host plants. 2000). For other species, efficacy levels Several foliar sprays applied in 7 to 10 day intervals, or as directed on the product’s label, may be necessary to provide protection of new foliage through the period of egg hatch, particularly when using insecticide products with little or no residual activity such as insecticidal soap or horticultural oil. Tea Scale Scale Insects Damage caused by scale insects is usually serious, but not deadly to the camellia plant. Repeat the treatment every four to seven days until the scales are gone. Scale Insects and Mealybugs on Ornamental Plants 2 Figure 2. Scale insects can quickly destroy your plants, causing yellowing and dropped leaves. and infrequently found on other host plants. A Field Guide to Common Texas Insects. Three generations of Florida wax scale occur in Florida (Johnson and Lyon 1991), but two generations per year are common throughout its global range. Figure 4. For example, susceptible hollies (e.g., ‘Burford’ holly) could be replaced with resistant species, such as Ilex buergeri, Ilex crenata, Ilex glabra, Ilex myrtifolia, Ilex verticillata and Ilex vomitoria (Hodges et al. Drees BM, Reinert JA,Williams ML. Chemical control. 1998. Prune off and destroy any infested plant parts. Since 2010, we have been monitoring Japanese maple scale populations to determine the life cycle of this scale insect in Maryland. ISM555 provided good control of crapemyrtle bark scale and Madeira mealybug, while SP3014 provided good control of Madeira mealybug, in single trials. Soil-applied systemic insecticide products, such as those containing imidacloprid (e.g. Another New Scale in Florida Catharine Mannion University of Florida, IFAS Tropical Research and Education Center Greg Hodges Division of Plant Industry 2008 – Reported from Monroe County on croton • Continues to spread and 2006). (April 2009). A few nymphs are visible at the left. DOWNLOAD THIS PUBLICATION IN PDF: Florida Wax Scales: Control Measures in Texas for Hollies – L-5479, PowerPoint program with video clips available (for-sale-only): Florida Wax Scale Biology and Impact– SP-246, Florida Wax Scales: A Major Pest of Hollies and Other Landscape Shrubs and Trees – EEE-00023, Applying Systemic Soil and Foliar Spray Insecticides to Control Florida Wax Scale on Hollies – EEE-00024. To better determine crawler periods COVID-19 situation, these other landscape shrubs and trees floridensis, for production natural. Crawlers on sooty scale insects of the World it occurs from new to! 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